Heapsort is one of the general sorting algorithms that performs in O(n.log(n)) in the worst-case, just like merge sort and quicksort, but sorts in place – as quicksort. Although quicksort’s worst-case sorting time is O(n2) it’s often considered that it beats other sorting algorithms in practice. Thus in practice quicksort is “faster” than heapsort. In the same time developers tend to consider heapsort as more difficult to implement than other n.log(n) sorting algorithms.
In the other hand heapsort uses a special data structure, called heap, in order to sort items in place and this data structure is quite useful in some specific cases. Thus to understand heapsort we first need to understand what is a heap.
So first let’s take a look at what is a heap.
A heap is a complete binary tree, where all the parents are greater than their children (max heap). If all the children are greater than their parents it is considered to call the heap a min-heap. But first what is a complete binary tree? Well, this is a binary tree, where all the levels are full, except the last one, where all the items are placed on the left (just like on the image below).