Tag Archives: Cascading Style Sheets

More on CSS Optimization

As CSS files are first downloaded to the client and then executed, the main optimization is to make those files smaller. But that doesn’t mean only minifing!


The Minification Process

While with minification you can strip all the symbols that only take space, but are useless when the browser parses the file, there are some other techniques, which in fact aren’t so simple, to speed up the loading process. By minification you get rid of the white spaces, tabs, new lines, etc., but the file may remain too large.

Useless Rules

Yes, sadly the browser doesn’t need all those white spaces, actually web developers need them. Just because this makes the file more readable, or readable at all. However most of the web applications have one large CSS file, typically named layout.css, main.css or whatever, that contains all the rules for the entire application. In many of the cases one page of a site doesn’t need all the rules for the site, so a possible solution is to remove all of the rules that aren’t used.

There are tools that may help you do the job. Such a tool, that I’m using is the Firefox add-on – Dust-Me Selectors. Of course there are a lot other tools doing the same job, so it’s up to you to pick up one.

After removing all those useless rules you’ll see that the size of the file can be something like 20% of the size of the source file. This is interesting to note, because most of the time the minification cannot give you such performance benefit. In fact this comes with some issues.

One Request or What?

This is the dilemma of the web programming, isn’t it? However thus you can split the main CSS file to few smaller files, but they are named differently so you cannot expect the browser to cache them when the user visits the site for the first time.

The case must be, of course, tested against various situations, so you can decide what suits you. However the typical scenario is to optimize only few of the pages, as they might be the most visited – as for example the homepage. If two of the pages are mainly visited, than you can make custom, small, CSS files for them with only the necessary rules, and let the other pages with the main CSS file. If you’ve a lot of returning visitors, you can be sure the custom files will be cached (if the client cache is turned on) and the second time somebody visits the “homepage” for example the page will load faster.

CSS word-wrap to Wrap Long Words

So you have a very very long word in some HTML element:


As you can see what we miss is line breaks. This is a rare situation, but it may occur when you paste links or something. So the question is how to fix it.

Pure CSS needed

Simply add a fixed width and word-wrap.


Now the result is obvious:


Vendor Prefixes in CSS

Vendor Prefixes vs CSS3

Either are bad, because vendor prefixes work on specific browsers, while CSS3 is not implemented fully by those browsers. When talking about vendor prefixes in CSS, let me tell you in breve, what’s this. If you’d like to make rounded corner under Mozilla Firefox, you usually use a background image, but there’s another way to do it – with Mozilla specific CSS:

-moz-border-radius: 5px;

That’s bad because it works only on Mozilla based browsers, although there’s a webkit based similar syntax:

-webkit-border-radius: 5px;

Even after that our “favorite” browser MSIE until version 9 is not displaying any rounded corners.

In other hand CSS3 gives us the possibility to write the simple:


which is not implemented in many currently used browsers, but it may be used for progressive enhancements.

In Breve …

Everybody’s talking about vendor prefixes after the famous post of PPK, but there are both opinions – pros and cons. However it’s good to use it, but very carefully, and think about what CSS3 may give you!

CSS Priority: The Difference Between a.my-class and .my-class

Do You Know What’s an Inefficient CSS Selector?

Perhaps! I was curious how can inefficient selectors impact a page performance. To begin with this topic let me say that inefficient selector is referred usually as nested selector:

div span div {
    border:1px solid red;

as you can see here there are three nested tags I use to reference the innermost div. If you’re wondering how you’d know about inefficient selectors – well there is a plugin for the Firebug written by a Google team called Page Speed explaining which of your selectors are inefficient. See the image below.

CSS Page Speed Inefficient Selectors

In the demo page you can find what I was trying to achieve and you can play around with that code to measure by yourself the performance of the different selectors.

So who’s faster? Nested, IDs or Classes?

Actually its pretty though to say. Yet another surprise for me was to notice that the notation:

div.my-class {}

was a bit slower than the marked as “inefficient” by Page Speed:

div span div {}

Another good thing to mention is that there is a difference between div.my-class and .my-class

Question’s answer …

In fact div.my-class is always with a higher priority than .my-class even if you’ve the following code:

div.my-class {
    border:1px solid red;
.my-class {
    border:1px solid blue;
div span div {
    border:1px solid black;

And the computed style for Firefox was …

CSS Selector Performance Computed Style

where “div span div” chain matches the same elements as the previous selectors, as you can see:

CSS Selector DOM View

so even that div.my-class will be the most important and finally the element will get its red border! It does not depend only on where you put the CSS rules, but also on how they are defined.

CSS right to left direction & floating elements


When developing a website for Arabic one of the most common questions is how to get it work with a reverse direction. Actually there is the CSS property direction:

.my-class {

which makes the page right aligned.

Floating elements …

However sometimes there are elements on the page which are absolutely positioned and the direction property doesn’t do the job. The solution is something like combining the two settings. Both direction and float. So something like:

.my-class {

becomes something like:

.my-class {

and of course if you’ve something like margin-left it should become margin-right!